Andrew Toole

Associate Professor-Clinical

Contact Information

Postal address: 
1664 Neil Ave Columbus, OH 43201

Biographical narrative

I attended three years of undergraduate education at The Ohio State University (1990 – 1993) prior to entering into the College of Optometry and earning a Doctor of Optometry degree (1997) from The Ohio State University. Following graduation, I completed an Advanced Practice Fellowship in Binocular Vision and Pediatrics and earned a Master of Science in Physiological Optics (2000) from The Ohio State University. From here I joined the faculty at The Ohio State University College of Optometry serving as the Associate Chief of the Binocular Vision and Pediatrics Services and becoming the Chief of the Aniseikonia Service. Subsequently I returned to graduate school funded by a T-32 training grant receiving a Doctor of Philosophy degree (2008) in the Vision Science program from The Ohio State University.


In 2008 I rejoined the faculty at The Ohio State University College of Optometry and am currently appointed as an Associate Professor of Clinical Optometry. I serve as the Chief of the Aniseikonia and Environmental Vision Service. Aniseikonia is a condition that very few doctors treat and as such I routinely see patients from around the country and have seen two international patients. Due to this I believe that it is important to pass my knowledge, skill, and experience in treating aniseikonia to the next generations of optometrists. In addition to teaching this topic didactically, I have had optometry students rotate through the service and currently mentor our Pediatric Optometry, Vision Therapy, and Rehabilitation Residents in evaluating and treating these patients throughout their yearlong residency. I also serve as the Associate Chief of our Binocular Vision and Pediatric (BVP) Service where I additionally serve as a clinical attending for our students, mentor our residents and advanced practice fellows, and act as a peer mentor/consultant for fellow faculty. I handle administrative duties and attend for our externs seeing often challenging patient cases at Twin Valley Behavioral Health (TVBH) inpatient mental health hospital. I also clinically attend for our students as they first begin seeing patients during their second year of the curriculum and in our Primary Vision Care Service.


Didactically I pass my clinical expertise and knowledge on to our students as instructor of record for two courses. The first is a course for our second year students on Diagnosis and Management of Common Vision Conditions. Here we breakdown the complexities of the relationship between eye focusing and eye alignment, and discuss the common clinical issues that arise when treating refractive conditions; two topics of importance as the students concurrently begin seeing patients for the first time. The following semester I teach the basic science course on Eye Movements and Binocular Vision. Here again I use my clinical experience to illustrate how these basic science concepts apply to the patients that we treat thus keeping my students more engaged in the material. I have also been able to share my knowledge on aniseikonia and binocular vision with the wider optometric community by giving continuing education lectures at the local and nation levels.


My research interests mainly are in the area of pediatric and binocular vision disorders. I have been a part of many large scale, multisite clinical trials and observational studies evaluating convergence insufficiency, amblyopia, intermittent exotropia, hyperopia, and vision of preschoolers. Several of these studies have altered the standard of care for treating these conditions. Locally I am part of an investigator team utilizing fMRI to evaluate the neurological underpinning of convergence eye movements in both binocularly normal patients and patients with convergence insufficiency. Recently I have also begun to evaluate the role of vision in sports. As the lead advisor for a Master’s student, we are preparing to evaluate how the duration of visual stimulus effects estimates of time to collision and localization in baseball batting.  


During my career I have also had the pleasure to serve at the college and national level. For the past three years I have been the inaugural chair for our Faculty Awards Committee and have overseen multiple nominations at the university and national level. Additionally I have previously chaired and will be taking over interim chair in January 2022 of our Faculty Advisory Committee. At the national level I recently performed a residency site visit for the Accreditation Council on Optometric Education.


In summary, I utilize my knowledge, clinical expertise, and research experience to effectively teach our students, in ongoing research endeavors, and in providing service to the college and the wider optometric community. Collectively, this makes me a well-rounded asset to the College of Optometry.

Journal articles

  • Kulp, M. T., Sinnott, L. T., Cotter, S. A., Borsting, E., Toole, A. J., Chen, A. M., . . . Convergence Insufficiency Treatment Trial - Attention, Reading Trial (CITT-ART) Investigator Group. (2021). Does coexisting accommodative dysfunction impact clinical convergence measures, symptoms and treatment success for symptomatic convergence insufficiency in children?. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. doi:10.1111/opo.12911
  • Toole, A. J., & Fogt, N. (2021). Review: Head and Eye Movements and Gaze Tracking in Baseball Batting. Optometry and Vision Science, 98(7), 750-758. doi:10.1097/OPX.0000000000001721
  • Ciner, E. B., Kulp, M. T., Pistilli, M., Ying, G. S., Maguire, M., Candy, T. R., . . . Quinn, G. (2021). Associations between visual function and magnitude of refractive error for emmetropic to moderately hyperopic 4- and 5-year-old children in the Vision in Preschoolers - Hyperopia in Preschoolers Study. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, 41(3), 553-564. doi:10.1111/opo.12810
  • Chen, A. M., Erzurum, S. A., Chandler, D. L., Hercinovic, A., Melia, B. M., Bhatt, A. R., . . . Cotter, S. A. (2021). Overminus Lens Therapy for Children 3 to 10 Years of Age with Intermittent Exotropia: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Ophthalmology, E1-E13. doi:10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2021.0082
  • Holmes, J. M., Hercinovic, A., Melia, B. M., Leske, D. A., Hatt, S. R., Chandler, D. L., . . . Pediatric Eye Disease Investigator Group. (2021). Health related quality of life in children with untreated intermittent exotropia and their parents. JOURNAL OF AAPOS, S1091-8531(21), 50-51. doi:10.1016/j.jaapos.2020.10.011
  • Scheiman, M. M., Alvarez, T. L., Cotter, S. A., Kulp, M. T., Sinnott, L. T., Plaumann, M. D., & Jhajj, J. (2021). Negative fusional vergence is abnormal in children with symptomatic convergence insufficiency. Optometry and Vision Science, 98(1), 32-40. doi:10.1097/OPX.0000000000001626
  • Chen, A. M., Roberts, T. L., Cotter, S. A., Kulp, M. T., Sinnott, L. T., Borsting, E. J., . . . Scheiman, M. M. (2020). Effectiveness of vergence/accommodative therapy for accommodative dysfunction in children with convergence insufficiency. OPHTHALMIC AND PHYSIOLOGICAL OPTICS, 41(1), 21-32. doi:10.1111/opo.12747
  • Borsting, E., Arnold, L. E., Mitchell, G. L., Kulp, M., Scheiman, M., Cotter, S., . . . Varghese, R. (2021). Effect of Vergence/Accommodative Therapy on Attention in Children with Convergence Insufficiency: A Randomized Clinical Trial. OPTOMETRY AND VISION SCIENCE, 98(3), 222-233. doi:10.1097/OPX.0000000000001659
  • Holmes, J. M., Kulp, M. T., Dean, T. W., Suh, D. W., Kraker, R. T., Wallace, D. K., . . . Weise, K. K. (2019). A Randomized Clinical Trial of Immediate Versus Delayed Glasses for Moderate Hyperopia in Children 3 to 5 Years of Age. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF OPHTHALMOLOGY, 208, 145-159. doi:10.1016/j.ajo.2019.06.021
  • CITT-ART Investigator Group. (2019). Treatment of Symptomatic Convergence Insufficiency in Children Enrolled in the Convergence Insufficiency Treatment Trial-Attention & Reading Trial: A Randomized Clinical Trial. OPTOMETRY AND VISION SCIENCE, 96(11), 825-835. doi:10.1097/OPX.0000000000001443
  • CITT-ART Investigator Group. (2019). Effect of Vergence/Accommodative Therapy on Reading in Children with Convergence Insufficiency: A Randomized Clinical Trial. OPTOMETRY AND VISION SCIENCE, 96(11), 836-849. doi:10.1097/OPX.0000000000001442
  • Kulp, M. T., & Toole, A. J. (2019). Binocular vision disorders. AccessScience, McGraw-Hill Education. doi:10.1036/1097-8542.081450
  • Pediatric Eye Disease Investigator Group. (2019). Three-year Observation of Children Age 3 to 10 Years Old with Untreated Intermittent Exotropia. OPHTHALMOLOGY, 126(9), 1249-1260. doi:10.1016/j.ophtha.2019.01.015
  • Pallet, L., Kulp, M. T., Simonson, J., Toole, A. J., McDaniel, C., & Mitchell, G. (2019). Evaluation of a New Clinical Test of Fusion Status: A Pilot Study. Vision Development and Rehabilitation, 5(2), 113-118.
  • Kulp, M. T., Holmes, J. M., Dean, T. W., Suh, D. W., Kraker, R. T., Wallace, D. K., . . . Christoff, A. (2019). A Randomized Clinical Trial of Immediate versus Delayed Glasses for Moderate Hyperopia in 1-and 2-Year-Olds. OPHTHALMOLOGY, 126(6), 876-887. doi:10.1016/j.ophtha.2018.12.049
  • Pedicatric Eye Disease Investigator Group. (2019). A Randomized Trial of Binocular Dig Rush Game Treatment for Amblyopia in Children Aged 7 to 12 Years. OPHTHALMOLOGY, 126(3), 456-466. doi:10.1016/j.ophtha.2018.10.032
  • Scheiman, M., Chase, C., Borsting, E., Mitchell, G. L., Kulp, M. T., & Cotter, S. A. (2018). Effect of treatment of symptomatic convergence insufficiency on reading in children: a pilot study. CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL OPTOMETRY, 101(4), 585-593. doi:10.1111/cxo.12682
  • Menjivar, A., Kulp, M. T., Mitchell, G. L., Toole, A. J., & Reuter, K. (2018). Screening for Convergence Insufficiency in School-Age Children. Clinical and Experimental Optometry, [Epub ahead of print]. doi:10.1111/cxo.12661
  • Manh, V. M., Holmes, J. M., Lazar, E. L., Kraker, R. T., Wallace, D. K., Kulp, M. T., . . . Davis, P. L. (2018). A Randomized Trial of a Binocular iPad Game Versus Part-Time Patching in Children Aged 13 to 16 Years With Amblyopia. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF OPHTHALMOLOGY, 186, 104-115. doi:10.1016/j.ajo.2017.11.017
  • Widmer, D., Oechslin, T. S., Limbachia, C. B., Kulp, M. T., Toole, A. J., Kashou, N. H., & Fogt, N. F. (2018). Post-therapy fMRI in Adults with Symptomatic Convergence Insufficiency. OPTOMETRY AND VISION SCIENCE.
  • Oechslin, T., Fogt, N. F., Kashou, N. H., Toole, A. J., Limbachia, C., Widmer, D., & Kulp, M. T. (2017). Imaging of Convergence Insufficiency Treatment Effects (ICITE) Pilot Study: Design and Methods. Vision Developement and Rehabilitation, 3(4).
  • Superstein, R., Dean, T. W., Holmes, J. M., Chandler, D. L., Cotter, S. A., Wallace, D. K., . . . Birch, E. E. (2017). Relationship among clinical factors in childhood intermittent exotropia. Journal of American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, 21(4), 268-273. doi:10.1016/j.jaapos.2017.04.005
  • Ying, G. -S., Maguire, M. G., Kulp, M. T., Ciner, E., Moore, B., Pistilli, M., & Candy, R. (2017). Comparison of cycloplegic refraction between Grand Seiko autorefractor and Retinomax autorefractor in the Vision in Preschoolers-Hyperopia in Preschoolers (VIP-HIP) Study. JOURNAL OF AAPOS, 21(3), 219-223. doi:10.1016/j.jaapos.2017.05.008
  • Holmes, J. M., Manh, V. M., Lazar, E. L., Beck, R. W., Birch, E. E., Kraker, R. T., . . . Wallace, D. K. (2016). Effect of a Binocular iPad Game vs Part-time Patching in Children Aged 5 to 12 Years With Amblyopia. JAMA Ophthalmology, 134(12), 1391. doi:10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2016.4262
  • Home-Based Therapy for Symptomatic Convergence Insufficiency in Children (2016). Optometry and Vision Science, 93(12), 1457-1465. doi:10.1097/OPX.0000000000000975
  • Suh, D. W., Kulp, M. T., Dean, T. W., Wallace, D. K., Kraker, R. T., Manny, R. E., . . . Avallone, J. M. (2016). Clinical factors associated with moderate hyperopia in preschool children with normal stereopsis and visual acuity. JOURNAL OF AAPOS, 20(5), 455-457. doi:10.1016/j.jaapos.2016.04.012
  • Ciner, E. B., Kulp, M. T., Maguire, M. G., Pistilli, M., Candy, T. R., Moore, B., . . . Cyert, L. (2016). Visual Function of Moderately Hyperopic 4-and 5-Year-Old Children in the Vision in Preschoolers - Hyperopia in Preschoolers Study. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF OPHTHALMOLOGY, 170, 143-152. doi:10.1016/j.ajo.2016.07.017
  • Ying, G. -S., & Quinn, G. E. (2016). Uncorrected hyperopia and preschool early literacy: results of the Vision in Preschoolers-Hyperopia In Preschoolers (VIP-HIP) Study. Journal of American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, 20(4), e11. doi:10.1016/j.jaapos.2016.07.039
  • Uncorrected Hyperopia and Preschool Early Literacy: Results of the Vision in Preschoolers-Hyperopia in Preschoolers (VIP-HIP) Study. (2016). Ophthalmology, 123(4). doi:10.1016/j.ophtha.2015.11.023
  • Fogt, N., Toole, A. J., & Rogers, D. L. (2016). A review of proximal inputs to the near response. CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL OPTOMETRY, 99(1), 30-38. doi:10.1111/cxo.12301
  • Convergence Insufficiency Treatment Trial -Attention and Reading Trial (CITT-ART): Design and Methods (2015). Vis Develop Rehab, 1(3).
  • A Randomized Trial Comparing Part-time Patching with Observation for Intermittent Exotropia in Children 12 to 35 Months of Age (2015). OPHTHALMOLOGY, 122(8). doi:10.1016/j.ophtha.2015.04.025
  • Leske, D. A., Holmes, J. M., Michele Melia, B., Miller, A., Jackson, J., Suh, D., . . . Duckman, R. (2015). Evaluation of the intermittent exotropia questionnaire using rasch analysis. JAMA Ophthalmology, 133(4), 461-465. doi:10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2014.5622
  • A Randomized Trial Comparing Part-Time Patching with Observation for Children 3 to 10 Years of Age with Intermittent Exotropia (2014). OPHTHALMOLOGY, 121(12). doi:10.1016/j.ophtha.2014.07.021
  • A randomized trial comparing part-time patching with observation for children 3-10 years old with intermittent exotropia (2014). Ophthalmology, 121(12).
  • Risk factors for astigmatism in the Vision In Preschoolers (VIP) Study (2014). Optometry and Vision Science, 91(5).
  • Risk factors for amblyopia in the Vision in Preschoolers (VIP) Study (2014). Ophthalmology, 121.
  • Associations between hyperopia and other vision and refractive error characteristics (2014). Optometry and Vision Science, 91.
  • Stereoacuity of preschool children with and without vision disorders (2014). Optometry and Vision Science, 91.
  • Maguire, M. G., Ying, G. -S., Ciner, E., Cyert, L., & Kulp, M. T. (2010). Prevalence of Vision Disorders by Racial and Ethnic Group Among Children Participating in Head Start. INVESTIGATIVE OPHTHALMOLOGY & VISUAL SCIENCE, 51(13), 2 pages. Retrieved from http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/
  • Accuracy of noncycloplegic retinoscopy, Retinomax autorefractor and SureSight Vision Screener for detecting significant refractive errors (2014). INVESTIGATIVE OPHTHALMOLOGY & VISUAL SCIENCE, 6(55).
  • Relationship Between Clinical Signs and Symptoms of Convergence Insufficiency (2013). OPTOMETRY AND VISION SCIENCE, 90.
  • Inter-tester agreement in refractive error measurements (2013). Optometry and Vision Science, 90.
  • Associations of Anisometropia with Unilateral Amblyopia, Interocular Acuity Difference, and Stereoacuity in Preschoolers (2013). Ophthalmology, 120(3).
  • Toole, A. J., Raasch, T. W., Fogt, N., & Brunstetter, T. J. (2011). Evaluation of Single Pixel Step Sizes in Visual Acuity Assessment. OPTOMETRY AND VISION SCIENCE, 88(2), 244-250. doi:10.1097/OPX.0b013e318205a69a
  • Impact of Confidence Number on Accuracy of the SureSight Vision Screener (2010). OPTOMETRY AND VISION SCIENCE, 87(2).
  • Effectiveness of Placebo Therapy for Maintaining Masking in a Clinical Trial of Vergence/Accommodative Therapy (2009). INVESTIGATIVE OPHTHALMOLOGY & VISUAL SCIENCE, 50(6). doi:10.1167/iovs.08-2693
  • Validity of the Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey: A Confirmatory Study (2009). OPTOMETRY AND VISION SCIENCE, 86.
  • Kulp, M. T., Borsting, E., Mitchell, G. L., Scheiman, M., Cotter, S., Cooper, J., . . . Wensveen, J. (2008). Feasibility of using placebo vision therapy in a multicenter clinical trial. OPTOMETRY AND VISION SCIENCE, 85(4), 255-261. doi:10.1097/OPX.0b013e318169288a
  • A randomized clinical trial of treatments for symptomatic convergence insufficiency in children (2008). Archives of Ophthalmology, 126(10).
  • The convergence insufficiency treatment trial: design and baseline characteristics (2008). Ophthalmic Epidemiology, 15(1).
  • Toole, A. J., & Fogt, N. (2007). The forced vergence cover test and phoria adaptation. OPHTHALMIC AND PHYSIOLOGICAL OPTICS, 27(5), 461-472. doi:10.1111/j.1475-1313.2007.00498.x
  • Does assessing eye alignment along with refractive error or visual acuity increase sensitivity for detection of strabismus in preschool vision screening? (2007). Investigative Ophthalmology and Vision Science, 48(7).
  • Impact of confidence number on the screening accuracy of the retinomax autorefractor (2007). Optometry and Vision Science, 84(3).
  • Stability of visual acuity improvement following discontinuation of amblyopia treatment in children aged 7 to 12 years (2007). Archives of Ophthalmology, 125(5).
  • Children unable to perform screening tests in vision in preschoolers study: proportion with ocular conditions and impact on measures of test accuracy. (2007). Investigative Ophthalmology and Vision Science, 48(1).
  • A randomized trial to evaluate 2 hours of daily patching for strabismic and anisometropic amblyopia in children (2006). Ophthalmology, 113(6).
  • Random Dot E stereotest: testability and reliability in 3- to 5-year-old children (2006). Journal of AAPOS, 10(6).
  • Treatment of anisometropic amblyopia in children with refractive correction (2006). Ophthalmology, 113(6).
  • Randomized trial of treatment of amblyopia in children aged 7 to 17 years (2005). Archives of Ophthalmology, 123(4).
  • Schmidt, P., Baumritter, A., Ciner, E., Cyert, L., Dobson, V., Haas, B., . . . Ying, G. S. (2005). Preschool vision screening tests administered by nurse screeners compared with lay screeners in the vision in preschoolers study. INVESTIGATIVE OPHTHALMOLOGY & VISUAL SCIENCE, 46(8), 2639-2648. doi:10.1167/iovs.05-0141
  • A randomized clinical trial of treatments for convergence insufficiency in children (2005). Archives of Ophthalmology, 123(1).
  • A randomized clinical trial of vision therapy/orthoptics versus pencil pushups for the treatment of convergence insufficiency in young adults (2005). Optometry and Vision Science, 82(7).
  • Randomised clinical trial of the effectiveness of base-in prism reading glasses versus placebo reading glasses for symptomatic convergence insufficiency in children (2005). British Journal of Ophthalmology, 89(10).
  • Sensitivity of screening tests for detecting vision in preschoolers-targeted vision disorders when specificity is 94% (2005). Optometry and Vision Science, 82(5).
  • The effect of amblyopia therapy on ocular alignment (2005). Journal of AAPOS, 9(6).
  • Two-year follow-up of a 6-month randomized trial of atropine vs patching for treatment of moderate amblyopia in children (2005). Archives of Ophthalmology, 123(2).
  • Comparison of preschool vision screening tests as administered by licensed eye care professionals in the vision in preschoolers study (2004). OPHTHALMOLOGY, 111(4). doi:10.1016/j.ophtha.2004.01.022
  • A randomized trial of atropine regimens for treatment of moderate amblyopia in children (2004). Ophthalmology, 111(11).
  • The electronic visual acuity tester: testability in preschool children (2004). Optometry and Vision Science, 81(4).
  • Fogt, N., & Toole, A. J. (2001). Effect of saccades and brief fusional stimuli on phoria adaptation. OPTOMETRY AND VISION SCIENCE, 78(11), 815-824. doi:10.1097/00006324-200111000-00011

Honors

  • Fellowship in the American Academy of Optometry, 20080101

Presentations

  • Toole, A. J. (n.d.). A Case-Based Approach to Managing BV with Glasses. In Binocular Vision and Pediatrics Forum.
  • Toole, A. J. (n.d.). Contact Lenses Didn't Work! Now What? Evaluation and Treatment of Aniseikonia. In American Academy of Optometry Meeting.
  • Toole, A. J. (n.d.). Contact Lenses Didn't Work! Now What? Evaluation and Treatment of Aniseikonia. In Optometric Educators Inc..
  • Toole, A. J. (n.d.). One Year of Optometric Education in about Fifteen Minutes. In Collaboration of Optometry and Occupational Therapy.

Abstracts

  • Title of Abstract/Short Entry: Does Accommodative Function Affect Symptom Level and Response to Therapy in Children with Symptomatic Convergence InsufficiencyAuthor(s): Kulp MT, Sinnott L, Scheiman M, Cotter S, Mitchell GL, Jordan L, Chen A, CITT-ART Study GroupTitle of Publication: Does Accommodative Function Affect Symptom Level and Response to Therapy in Children with Symptomatic Convergence InsufficiencyPublication Status: PublishedPublication date: 2020Publisher: Optometry and Vision...
  • Title of Publication: Optometry and Vision ScienceTitle of Entry: Screening of Children Study: Evaluation of Tests of SuppressionAuthor(s): Pallet L, Kulp M, Mitchell G, Simonson J, Toole A, McDaniel CEPublication Status: PublishedPublication date: October 2017Publisher: Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Optometry, ChicagoEdition: E-abstract 175224Type of Work: AbstractRecord created at source: 18 May 2018
  • Title of Publication: Optom Vis SciTitle of Entry: How does fMRI brain activity from convergence eye movements compare between normal binoocular vision subjects and those with convergence insufficiency?RIV Author(s): Oechslin, T., Limbachia, C., Fogt, N., Kashou, N., Toole, A., Widmer, D., Kulp, M. APublication Status: PublishedPublication date: November 2016Publisher: E-abstract 160113Type of Work: AbstractReviewed Item?: trueType of Review: UnknownDescription of Effort: Study Design,...
  • Title of Publication: Vision Development & RehabiliationTitle of Entry: Comparison of convergence- and divergence-related brain activation using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)RIV Author(s): Oechslin, T., Limbachia, C., Fogt, N., Kashou, N., Toole, A., Widmer, D., Kulp, M. APublication Status: PublishedPublication date: March 2016Publisher: Vision Development & Rehabiliation, On-lineType of Work: AbstractReviewed Item?: trueType of Review: UnknownDescription of Effort:...
  • Title of Publication: Optom Vis SciTitle of Entry: What does divergence look like in an fMRI study of normal binocular vision subjects?RIV Author(s): Widmer, D., Oechslin, T., Limbachia, C., Fogt, N., Toole, A., Kulp, M., Kashou, N.Publication Status: PublishedPublication date: October 2015Publisher: Optom Vis Sci, E-abstract 155027Type of Work: AbstractReviewed Item?: trueType of Review: UnknownDescription of Effort: Study Design, Stimulus Design and Implementation, AnalysisPercent...
  • Title of Publication: Journal of Attention DisordersTitle of Entry: Behavioral and Emotional Problems Associated With Convergence Insufficiency in Children: An Open TrialRIV Author(s): Borsting E, Mitchell GL, Arnold LE, Sheiman M, Chase C, Kulp M, Cotter S, CITT-RS GroupPublication Status: PublishedPublication date: November 2013Publisher: SAGE, Thousand OaksType of Work: AbstractReviewed Item?: trueType of Review: Peer-ReviewPercent Authorship: 100
  • Title of Publication: Optometry and Vision Science, 86Title of Entry: Subjective clarity, visual acuity, and image qualityRIV Author(s): Toole, A.J., Raasch, T.W., Fogt, N.F., Brunstetter, T.J.Publication Status: PublishedPublication date: January 2012Publisher: Wolters Kluwer, Alphen aan den RijnType of Work: AbstractReviewed Item?: trueType of Review: Peer-ReviewDescription of Effort: E-abstract 125605Percent Authorship: 100
  • Title of Publication: Optometry and Vision Science, 88Title of Entry: Subjective and objective determinations of astigmatism: impact on acuity and best focusRIV Author(s): Toole, A.J., Raasch, T.W., Fogt, N.F., Brunstetter, T.J.Publication Status: PublishedPublication date: January 2011Publisher: Wolters Kluwer, Alphen aan den RijnType of Work: AbstractReviewed Item?: trueType of Review: Peer-ReviewDescription of Effort: E-abstract 115984Percent Authorship: 100
  • Title of Publication: Optometry and Vision Science, 86Title of Entry: Evaluation of single pixel step sizes in visual acuity assessmentRIV Author(s): Toole, A.J., Raasch, T.W., Fogt, N.F., Brunstetter, T.J.Publication Status: PublishedPublication date: January 2009Publisher: Wolters Kluwer, Alphen aan den RijnType of Work: AbstractReviewed Item?: trueType of Review: Peer-ReviewDescription of Effort: E-abstract 95823Percent Authorship: 100
  • Title of Publication: Optometry and Vision Science, 86Title of Entry: Evaluation of visual acuity testing and scoring proceduresRIV Author(s): Raasch, T.W., Toole, A.J., Fogt, N.F., Brunstetter, T.J.Publication Status: PublishedPublication date: January 2009Publisher: Wolters Kluwer, Alphen aan den RijnType of Work: AbstractReviewed Item?: trueType of Review: Peer-ReviewDescription of Effort: E-abstract 95702Percent Authorship: 100
  • Title of Publication: Optometry and Vision Science, 85Title of Entry: Computer-assisted vector subjective refractionRIV Author(s): Raasch, T.W., Toole, A.J., Burcham, M., Kuether, C.L.Publication Status: PublishedPublication date: January 2008Publisher: Wolters Kluwer, Alphen aan den RijnType of Work: AbstractReviewed Item?: trueType of Review: Peer-ReviewDescription of Effort: E-abstract 080011Percent Authorship: 100
  • Title of Publication: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 47Title of Entry: Discriminating asymptomatic from symptomatic subjects following treatment for convergence insufficiencyRIV Author(s): Toole, A.J., Mitchell, G.L, Kulp, M.T., Earley, M.J., & CITT S.G.Publication Status: PublishedPublication date: January 2008Publisher: ARVO, RockvilleType of Work: AbstractReviewed Item?: trueType of Review: Peer-ReviewDescription of Effort: E-abstract 1123Percent Authorship: 100
  • Title of Publication: Optometry and Vision Science, 85Title of Entry: Investigation of pattern glare and visual stressRIV Author(s): Buckland, M.J., Kulp, M.T., Mitchell, G.L., Toole, A.J., Earley, M.J.Publication Status: PublishedPublication date: January 2008Publisher: Wolters Kluwer, Alphen aan den RijnType of Work: AbstractReviewed Item?: trueType of Review: Peer-ReviewDescription of Effort: E-abstract 085021Percent Authorship: 100
  • Title of Publication: Optometry and Vision Science, 84Title of Entry: Relationship between clinical measures and symptoms following treatment for convergence insufficiency in the CITT StudyRIV Author(s): Toole, A.J., Mitchell, G.L, Kulp, M.T., Earley, M.J., & CITT S.G.Publication Status: PublishedPublication date: January 2007Publisher: Wolters Kluwer, Alphen aan den RijnType of Work: AbstractReviewed Item?: trueType of Review: Peer-ReviewDescription of Effort: E-abstract 070006Percent...
  • Title of Publication: Optometry and Vision Science, 83Title of Entry: The contribution of proximity to the accommodative and vergence responseRIV Author(s): Toole, A.J., & Fogt, N.Publication Status: PublishedPublication date: January 2006Publisher: Wolters Kluwer, Alphen aan den RijnType of Work: AbstractReviewed Item?: trueType of Review: Peer-ReviewDescription of Effort: E-abstract 065010Percent Authorship: 100
  • Title of Publication: Journal of Vision, 6Title of Entry: A novel automated method for marking catch-up saccadesRIV Author(s): Toole, A.J., & Fogt, N.Publication Status: PublishedPublication date: January 2006Publisher: ARVO, RockvilleType of Work: AbstractReviewed Item?: trueType of Review: Peer-ReviewDescription of Effort: E-abstract 065010Percent Authorship: 100
  • Title of Publication: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 47Title of Entry: Symptoms and their relationship to positive fusional vergence and the positive fusional vergence/phoria ratio: the CITT Pilot StudyRIV Author(s): Toole, A.J., Mitchell, G.L., Kulp, M.T., Earley, M.J., & CITT S.GPublication Status: PublishedPublication date: January 2006Publisher: ARVO, RockvilleType of Work: AbstractReviewed Item?: trueType of Review: Peer-ReviewDescription of Effort: E-abstract...
  • Title of Publication: Optometry and Vision Science, 82Title of Entry: The influence of forced vergence on phoria adaptationRIV Author(s): Toole, A.J., & Fogt, NPublication Status: PublishedPublication date: January 2005Publisher: Wolters Kluwer, Alphen aan den RijnType of Work: AbstractReviewed Item?: trueType of Review: Peer-ReviewDescription of Effort: E-abstract 050057Percent Authorship: 100
  • Title of Publication: Optometry and Vision Science, 82Title of Entry: CITT Pilot: can clinical measures predict symptoms and does the phoria change after therapy for convergence insufficiency (CI)?RIV Author(s): Toole, A.J., Mitchell, G.L, Kulp, M.T., Earley, M.J., & CITT S.GPublication Status: PublishedPublication date: January 2005Publisher: Wolters Kluwer, Alphen aan den RijnType of Work: AbstractReviewed Item?: trueType of Review: Peer-ReviewDescription of Effort: E-abstract...
  • Title of Publication: Optometry and Vision Science, 81Title of Entry: An alternative approach to subjective refractionRIV Author(s): Bartell, C., Toole, A.J., & Raasch, T.Publication Status: PublishedPublication date: January 2004Publisher: Wolters Kluwer, Alphen aan den RijnType of Work: AbstractReviewed Item?: trueType of Review: Peer-ReviewPercent Authorship: 100

Chapters

  • Chapter Title: Visual Efficiency Problems and Treatment EfficacyBook Title: Optometric Management of Learning-Related Vision ProblemsChapter Authors: Toole AJ, McDaniel CEditors: Kulp M, Borsting EPublication Status: ForthcomingPublication date: 2022Publisher: : Mosby Elsevier, 11830 Westline Industrial Drive, St. Louis, Missouri, 63143, United StatesEdition: ThirdRecord created at source: 28 October 2021
  • Chapter Title: AniseikoniaBook Title: Advances in Ophthalmic Optics TechnologyChapter Authors: Toole AJ, Raasch T, Kulp MEditors: Trindade B, William DPublication Status: In PressPublication date: 2021Publisher: : Institute of PhysicsRecord created at source: 28 October 2021