Peter King-Smith

Faculty Emeritus

Contact Information

Postal address: 
338 W 10th Ave Room 558 Columbus, OH 43210

Biographical narrative

OTHER EXPERTISE
B.A. and Ph.D. degrees in Physics were obtained at Cambridge University, after which an M.Sc. degree in Physiology was obtained from University College, London. Post doctoral work at Edinburgh and Oxford Universities was involved with studies of color vision and electro-physiology of the pigeon. A further post-doctoral year was spent at Florida State University studying visual pigments using retinal densitometry. Nine years were then spent as a Lecturer and then Senior Lecturer in the Ophthalmic Optics (Optometry) Department of the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology; teaching responsibilities were courses in psychophysics and electro-physiology and research interests included basic and clinical psychophysical studies. Since 1980, he served as Associate and then Full Professor at the O.S.U. College of Optometry. Teaching assignments have been courses on monocular sensory processes and physical optics for the professional students, and a number of different courses (typically 2 to 3 over a 2 year cycle) for graduate students. Research interests have included clinical psychophysics and electro-physiology; recently, his work has been related to the theory of efficient threshold measurement and to measuring the thickness of the tear film. Dr. King-Smith organizes the Visual Science Seminars which are held in the College as a way of encouraging interaction between vision scientists from around the campus.

Degrees

  • 1966, M.S., University of London
  • 1965, Ph.D., University of Cambridge

Journal articles

  • King-Smith,P,Ewen; Nichols,Jason,J; Braun,Richard,J; Nichols,Kelly,K. "High Resolution Microscopy of the Lipid Layer of the Tear Film." OCULAR SURFACE. Vol. 9, no. 4. (October 2011.): 197-211.
  • Kimball,Samuel,H; King-Smith,P,Ewen; Nichols,Jason,J. "Evidence for the Major Contribution of Evaporation to Tear Film Thinning between Blinks." INVESTIGATIVE OPHTHALMOLOGY & VISUAL SCIENCE. Vol. 51, no. 12. (December 2010.): 6294-6297.
  • King-Smith,P,Ewen; Hinel,Erich,A; Nichols,Jason,J. "Application of a Novel Interferometric Method to Investigate the Relation between Lipid Layer Thickness and Tear Film Thinning." INVESTIGATIVE OPHTHALMOLOGY & VISUAL SCIENCE. Vol. 51, no. 5. (May 2010.): 2418-2423.
  • King-Smith,P,Ewen; Fink,Barbara,A; Nichols,Jason,J; Nichols,Kelly,K; Braun,Richard,J; McFadden,Geoffrey,B. "The Contribution of Lipid Layer Movement to Tear Film Thinning and Breakup." INVESTIGATIVE OPHTHALMOLOGY & VISUAL SCIENCE. Vol. 50, no. 6. (June 2009.): 2747-2756.
  • King-Smith,P,Ewen; Nichols,Jason,J; Nichols,Kelly,K; Fink,Barbara,A; Braun,Richard,J. "Contributions of evaporation and other mechanisms to tear film thinning and break-up." OPTOMETRY AND VISION SCIENCE. Vol. 85, no. 8. (August 2008.): 623-630.
  • Braun, RJ and King-Smith, PE. "Model problems for the tear film in a blink cycle: Single equation models.." Accepted by J Fluid Mechanics. (January 2007.): -.
  • King-Smith, P Ewen; Fink, Barbara, A; Nichols, Jason, J; Nichols, Kelly, K; Hill, Richard M. "Interferometric imaging of the full thickness of the precorneal tear film.." Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, image science, and vision. Vol. 23, no. 9. (January 2006.): 2097-104.
  • Nichols, Jason, J; Mitchell, G Lynn; King-Smith, P Ewen. "The impact of contact lens care solutions on the thickness of the tear film and contact lens.." Cornea. Vol. 24, no. 7. (January 2005.): 825-32.
  • Sheedy, James, E; Campbell, Charles; King-Smith, Ewen; Hayes, John R. "Progressive powered lenses: the Minkwitz theorem.." Optometry and vision science : official publication of the American Academy of Optometry. Vol. 82, no. 10. (January 2005.): 916-22.
  • King-Smith, P Ewen. "Threshold nonlinearities and signal detection theory.." Perception. Vol. 34, no. 8. (January 2005.): 941-6.
  • Nichols, Jason, J; Mitchell, G Lynn; King-Smith, P Ewen. "Thinning rate of the precorneal and prelens tear films.." Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. Vol. 46, no. 7. (January 2005.): 2353-61.
  • Nichols, Jason, J; King-Smith, P Ewen. "The impact of hydrogel lens settling on the thickness of the tears and contact lens.." Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. Vol. 45, no. 8. (January 2004.): 2549-54.
  • King-Smith, P Ewen; Fink, Barbara, A; Hill, Richard, M; Koelling, Kurt, W; Tiffany, John M. "The thickness of the tear film.." Current eye research. Vol. 29, no. 4-5. (January 2004.): 357-68.
  • Nichols, Jason, J; King-Smith, P Ewen. "The effect of eye closure on the post-lens tear film thickness during silicone hydrogel contact lens wear.." Cornea. Vol. 22, no. 6. (January 2003.): 539-44.
  • Nichols, Jason, J; King-Smith, P Ewen. "Thickness of the pre- and post-contact lens tear film measured in vivo by interferometry.." Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. Vol. 44, no. 1. (January 2003.): 68-77.
  • Nichols, Jason, J; King-Smith, P Ewen. "The thickness of the post-lens tear film measured by interferometry.." Advances in experimental medicine and biology. Vol. 506, no. Pt B. (January 2002.): 929-33.
  • King-Smith, P Ewen; Fink, Barbara, A; Hill, Richard M. "Evaporation from the human tear film studied by interferometry.." Advances in experimental medicine and biology. Vol. 506, no. Pt A. (January 2002.): 425-9.
  • King-Smith, P, E; Fink, B, A; Fogt, N; Nichols, K, K; Hill, R, M; Wilson, G S. "The thickness of the human precorneal tear film: evidence from reflection spectra.." Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. Vol. 41, no. 11. (January 2000.): 3348-59.
  • King-Smith, P, E; Fink, B, A; Fogt, N. "Three interferometric methods for measuring the thickness of layers of the tear film.." Optometry and vision science : official publication of the American Academy of Optometry. Vol. 76, no. 1. (January 1999.): 19-32.
  • Fogt, N; King-Smith, P, E; Tuell, G. "Interferometric measurement of tear film thickness by use of spectral oscillations.." Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, image science, and vision. Vol. 15, no. 1. (January 1998.): 268-75.
  • Alvarez, S, L; Pierce, G, E; Vingrys, A, J; Benes, S, C; Weber, P, A; King-Smith, P E. "Comparison of red-green, blue-yellow and achromatic losses in glaucoma.." Vision research. Vol. 37, no. 16. (January 1997.): 2295-301.
  • King-Smith, P, E; Rose, D. "Principles of an adaptive method for measuring the slope of the psychometric function.." Vision research. Vol. 37, no. 12. (January 1997.): 1595-604.
  • Billock, V, A; Vingrys, A, J; King-Smith, P E. "Opponent-color detection threshold asymmetries may result from reduction of ganglion cell subpopulations.." Visual neuroscience. Vol. 11, no. 1. (January 1994.): 99-109.
  • King-Smith, P, E; Grigsby, S, S; Vingrys, A, J; Benes, S, C; Supowit, A. "Efficient and unbiased modifications of the QUEST threshold method: theory, simulations, experimental evaluation and practical implementation.." Vision research. Vol. 34, no. 7. (January 1994.): 885-912.
  • Grigsby, S, S; Vingrys, A, J; Benes, S, C; King-Smith, P E. "Correlation of chromatic, spatial, and temporal sensitivity in optic nerve disease.." Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. Vol. 32, no. 13. (January 1991.): 3252-62.
  • Dain, S, J; Rammohan, K, W; Benes, S, C; King-Smith, P E. "Chromatic, spatial, and temporal losses of sensitivity in multiple sclerosis.." Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. Vol. 31, no. 3. (January 1990.): 548-58.
  • Vingrys AJ, Benes SC, and King-Smith PE. "Color can be more sensitive than achromatic perimetry.." Clin. Vision Sci.. Vol. 4, (January 1989.): 197-209.
  • Vingrys, A, J; King-Smith, P E. "A quantitative scoring technique for panel tests of color vision.." Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. Vol. 29, no. 1. (January 1988.): 50-63.
  • Vingrys AJ, Benes SC, and King-Smith PE. "Detecting retinal lesions with automated perimetry.." Clinical and Exptl. Optom.. Vol. 7, (January 1988.): 10-20.
  • King-Smith PE, Vingrys AJ and Benes SC. "Visual thresholds measured with color video monitors.." color Research and Application. Vol. 12, (January 1987.): 73-80.
  • Sellers, K, L; Chioran, G, M; Dain, S, J; Benes, S, C; Lubow, M; Rammohan, K; King-Smith, P E. "Red-green mixture thresholds in congenital and acquired color defects.." Vision research. Vol. 26, no. 7. (January 1986.): 1083-97.
  • King-Smith, P, E; Loffing, D, H; Jones, R. "Rod and cone ERGs and their oscillatory potentials.." Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. Vol. 27, no. 2. (January 1986.): 270-3.
  • Vingrys AJ and King-Smith PE. "Factors in using color video monitors for the assessment of visual thresholds.." Color Research and Application. Vol. 11(supplement), (January 1986.): S57-62.
  • King-Smith PE, Jones R, Loffing DH and Gaynier F. "Stray light contribution to the focal electroretinogram.." Clin. Vision Sci.. Vol. 1, (January 1986.): 153-160.
  • Chioran, G, M; Sellers, K, L; Benes, S, C; Lubow, M; Dain, S, J; King-Smith, P E. "Color mixture thresholds measured on a color television--a new method for analysis, classification and diagnosis of neuro-ophthalmic disease.." Documenta ophthalmologica. Advances in ophthalmology. Vol. 61, no. 2. (January 1985.): 119-35.
  • Alvarez, S, L; King-Smith, P E. "Dichotomy of psychophysical responses in retrobulbar neuritis.." Ophthalmic & physiological optics : the journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists). Vol. 4, no. 1. (January 1984.): 101-5.
  • Kranda, K; King-Smith, P E. "What can colour thresholds tell us about the nature of the underlying detection mechanisms?." Ophthalmic & physiological optics : the journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists). Vol. 4, no. 1. (January 1984.): 83-7.
  • King-Smith, P, E; Lubow, M; Benes, S C. "Selective damage to chromatic mechanisms in neuro-ophthalmic diseases I. Review of published evidence.." Documenta ophthalmologica. Advances in ophthalmology. Vol. 58, no. 3. (January 1984.): 241-50.
  • Alvarez, S, L; King-Smith, P, E; Bhargava, S K. "Spectral thresholds in macular degeneration.." The British journal of ophthalmology. Vol. 67, no. 8. (January 1983.): 508-11.
  • Alvarez, S, L; King-Smith, P, E; Bhargava, S K. "Spectral threshold: measurement and clinical applications.." The British journal of ophthalmology. Vol. 67, no. 8. (January 1983.): 504-7.
  • King-Smith PE, Alvarez SL, and Bhargava SK. "Luminance and color dysfunction in retrobulbar neuritis.." Docum. Ophthal. Proc. Series. Vol. 33, (January 1982.): 441-443.
  • King-Smith, P, E; Kranda, K. "Photopic adaptation in the red-green spectral range.." Vision research. Vol. 21, no. 4. (January 1981.): 565-72.
  • Dain, S, J; King-Smith, P E. "Visual thresholds in dichromats and normals; the importance of post-receptoral processes.." Vision research. Vol. 21, no. 4. (January 1981.): 573-80.
  • King-Smith, P, E; Kulikowski, J J. "The detection and recognition of two lines.." Vision research. Vol. 21, no. 2. (January 1981.): 235-50.
  • Abadi, R, V; King-Smith, P E. "Congenital nystagmus modifies orientational detection.." Vision research. Vol. 19, no. 12. (January 1979.): 1409-11.
  • Kranda, K; King-Smith, P E. "Detection of coloured stimuli by independent linear systems.." Vision research. Vol. 19, no. 7. (January 1979.): 733-45.
  • King-Smith, P, E; Riggs, L A. "Visual sensitivity to controlled motion of a line or edge.." Vision research. Vol. 18, no. 11. (January 1978.): 1509-20.
  • Zisman, F; King-Smith, P, E; Bhargava, S K. "Spectral sensitivities of acquired color defects analyzed in terms of color opponent theory.." Modern problems in ophthalmology. Vol. 19, (January 1978.): 254-7.
  • Jablonowska, K; King-Smith, P E. "Two stages in the visual adaptation to light [proceedings]." The Journal of physiology. Vol. 280, (January 1978.): 50P-.
  • King-Smith, P E. "Analysis of the detection of a moving line.." Perception. Vol. 7, no. 4. (January 1978.): 449-58.
  • Ingling, C R Jr; King-Smith, P, E; Carden, D. "Luminance and opponent color contributions to visual detection and to temporal and spatial integration: comment.." Journal of the Optical Society of America. Vol. 68, no. 8. (January 1978.): 1143-7.
  • King-Smith, P, E; Riggs, L, A; Moore, R, K; Butler, T W. "Temporal properties of the human visual nervous system.." Vision research. Vol. 17, no. 9. (January 1977.): 1101-6.
  • Bacon, J; King-Smith, P E. "The detection of line segments.." Perception. Vol. 6, no. 2. (January 1977.): 125-31.
  • Zisman, F; Carden, D; Baxendale, K; King-Smith, P E. "Direct readout of spectral sensitivity for clinical and research purposes.." American journal of optometry and physiological optics. Vol. 54, no. 1. (January 1977.): 52-5.
  • Butler, T, W; King-Smith, P, E; Moore, R, K; Riggs, L A. "Proceedings: The time course of human vision.." The Journal of physiology. Vol. 258, no. 2. (January 1976.): 67P-68P.
  • Baxendale, K; Carden, D; King-Smith, P, E; Zisman, F. "Proceedings: An analogue computer for the direct readout of human spectral sensitivity measurements.." The Journal of physiology. Vol. 257, no. 1. (January 1976.): 11P-12P.
  • King-Smith, P, E; More, R, K; Riggs, L A. "A new approach to the frequency response of human vision.." The Journal of physiology. Vol. 257, no. 1. (January 1976.): 36P-37P.
  • King-Smith, P, E; Carden, D. "Luminance and opponent-color contributions to visual detection and adaptation and to temporal and spatial integration.." Journal of the Optical Society of America. Vol. 66, no. 7. (January 1976.): 709-17.
  • King-Smith, P, E; Kranda, K; Wood, I C. "An acquired color defect of the opponent-color system.." Investigative ophthalmology. Vol. 15, no. 7. (January 1976.): 584-7.
  • Butler, T, W; King-Smith, P, E; Moore, R, K; Riggs, L A. "Visual sensitivity to retinal image movements [proceedings].." The Journal of physiology. Vol. 263, no. 1. (January 1976.): 170P-171P.
  • King-Smith, P E. "Visual detection analysed in terms of luminance and chromatic signals.." Nature. Vol. 255, no. 5503. (January 1975.): 69-70.
  • King-Smith, P, E; Kulikowski, J J. "Pattern and flicker detection analysed by subthreshold summation.." The Journal of physiology. Vol. 249, no. 3. (January 1975.): 519-48.
  • King-Smith, P, E; Kulikowski, J J. "The detection of gratings by independent activation of line detectors.." The Journal of physiology. Vol. 247, no. 2. (January 1975.): 237-71.
  • King-Smith, P E. "Letter: The Stiles-Crawford effect and wave guide modes: an explanation of Macleod's paradox in terms of local adaptation within outer segments.." Vision research. Vol. 14, no. 7. (January 1974.): 593-5.
  • King-Smith, P, E; Webb, J R. "The use of photopic saturation in determining the fundamental spectral sensitivity curves.." Vision research. Vol. 14, no. 6. (January 1974.): 421-9.
  • King-Smith, P, E; Webb, J R. "The site of human photopic saturation.." The Journal of physiology. Vol. 231, no. 1. (January 1973.): 27P-29P.
  • King-Smith, P, E; Kulikowski, J J. "Proceedings: Spatial arrangement of the flicker and pattern detectors for a fine line.." The Journal of physiology. Vol. 234, no. 2. (January 1973.): 33P-35P.
  • King-Smith, P E. "The optical density of erythrolabe determined by a new method.." The Journal of physiology. Vol. 230, no. 3. (January 1973.): 551-60.
  • King-Smith, P, E; Kulikowski, J J. "Line, edge and grating detectors in human vision.." The Journal of physiology. Vol. 230, no. 1. (January 1973.): 23P-25P.
  • King-Smith, P E. "The optical density of erythrolabe determined by retinal densitometry using the self-screening method.." The Journal of physiology. Vol. 230, no. 3. (January 1973.): 535-49.
  • Kulikowski, J, J; Abadi, R; King-Smith, P E. "Orientational selectivity of grating and line detectors in human vision.." Vision research. Vol. 13, no. 8. (January 1973.): 1479-86.
  • King-Smith, P, E; Kulikowski, J J. "Proceedings: Lateral interaction in the detection of composite spatial patterns.." The Journal of physiology. Vol. 234, no. 2. (January 1973.): 5P-6P.
  • Kulikowski, J, J; King-Smith, P E. "Spatial arrangement of line, edge and grating detectors revealed by subthreshold summation.." Vision research. Vol. 13, no. 8. (January 1973.): 1455-78.
  • King-Smith, P E. "The optical density of erythrolabe determined by retinal densitometry.." The Journal of physiology. Vol. 218, no. 1. (January 1971.): 100P-101P.
  • King-Smith, P E. "A simple in situ micro-electrode tester.." The Journal of physiology. Vol. 210, no. 2. (January 1970.): 26P-28P.
  • King-Smith, P E. "Micro-electrode recordings from the pigeon lateral geniculate nucleus.." The Journal of physiology. Vol. 210, no. 2. (January 1970.): 169P+-.
  • King-Smith, P E. "Absorption spectra and function of the coloured oil drops in the pigeon retina.." Vision research. Vol. 9, no. 11. (January 1969.): 1391-9.
  • King-Smith PE. "The de Haas-van Alphen effect in dilute alloys of silver and gold.." Phil. Mag.. Vol. 12, (January 1965.): 1123-1138.

Abstracts

  • King-Smith PE, Kimball SH, and Nichols JJ.. "Roughness of the corneal surface studied by interferometry.." . (January 2007.): -.
  • King-Smith PE, Fink BA, and Nichols JJ.. "Contributions of evaporation and tear flow to tear film thinning and breakup.." . (January 2006.): -.
  • Kimball SH, King-Smith PE, and Nichols JJ.. "Improving interferometric tear thickness by using longer wavelengths.." Vol. Program Number 060013, . (January 2006.): -.
  • Nichols KK, Nichols JJ, King-Smith PE, and Kellerman DJ. "Tear film thickness and thinning rate following a six week trial of 2% diquafasol tetrasodium vs. placebo in dry eye patients.." . (January 2006.): -.
  • Lee K, Skadahl EJ, King-Smith PE and Nichols JJ. "Measurement of the impact of evaporation on pre-lens tear film thinning and thickness.." Vol. Program Number 060012, . (January 2006.): -.
  • Williams R, Fink B, and King-Smith PE.. "Agreement of central corneal thickness measures produced by an ultrasonic pachymeter versus four optical instruments.." Vol. Program Number 060012, . (January 2006.): -.
  • King-Smith PE, Fink BA, Hill RM, Nichols JJ, and Nichols KK.. "Human tear film breakup studied by a new imaging interferometer: preliminary observations.." . (January 2005.): -.
  • Nichols JJ, and King-Smith PE. "Contact lens and tear film thickness measures associated with different multipurpose care solutions.." Vol. 3, . (January 2004.): S97-.
  • King-Smith PE, Nichols KK, and Wood JE.. "Can the mucus layer of the tear film be demonstrated by interferometry?." . (January 2004.): -.
  • King-Smith PE, Nichols KK, and Shewring JE.. "Further analysis of the two reflecting surfaces of the human corneal epithelium which are demonstrated by interferometry.." Vol. 3, . (January 2004.): S81-.
  • King-Smith PE, Fink BA, and Hill RM.. "An interferometric imaging method for studying the three dimensional structure of the human precorneal tear film.." Vol. 3, . (January 2004.): S80-.
  • Nichols JJ, Mitchell GL, and King-Smith PE.. "Mechanisms of precorneal and prelens tear film thinning.." Vol. 3, . (January 2004.): S96-.
  • Gardner C, King-Smith PE, Nichols KK, and Nichols JJ.. "Tear film thickness: responsiveness to potential cognitive demands.." Vol. 81 (supplement), . (January 2004.): 253-.
  • Williams R, Twa M, Mitchell GL, Fink BA, and King-Smith PE.. "Accuracy and reliability of thickness measurements by optical coherence tomography.." Vol. 81 (supplement), . (January 2004.): 251-.
  • King-Smith PE, Fink BA, and Braun RJ.. "Bubbles in the tear fim, white lipid spots and tear film breakup.." Vol. 3, . (January 2004.): S80-.
  • King-Smith PE, Nichols KK, and Wood JE.. "Is inferior tear film thinner than superior tear film?." . (January 2003.): -.
  • King-Smith PE, Nichols KK, and Wood JE.. "Interferometric analysis of reflections from the tear film and ocular surface.." . (January 2003.): -.
  • Nichols JJ, and King-Smith PE.. "The effect of eye closure on the post-lens tear film during silicon hydrogel contact lens wear.." Vol. 79 (supplement), . (January 2002.): 258-.
  • King-Smith PE, Nichols KK, and Wood JE.. "Why does dry eye affect inferior cornea more than superior cornea?." Vol. 79 (supplement), . (January 2002.): 308-.
  • King-Smith PE, Fink BA, Nichols JJ, Nichols KK, Hill RM, and Markakis G.. "In vivo Measurement of the Thickness of Human Corneal Endothelium and Descemet's Membrane Using Interferometry.." . (January 2002.): -.
  • King-Smith PE, Fink BA, Nichols JJ, Nichols KK, and Hill RM. "Noninvasive measurement of the thickness of the human corneal endothelium and Descemet's membrane.." Vol. 78 (supplement), . (January 2001.): 25-.
  • Nichols JJ, and King-Smith PE.. "The thickness of the pre- and post-lens tear film and of contact lenses measured by interferometry.." Vol. 42, . (January 2001.): S595-.
  • Nichols JJ, and King-Smith PE. "In-vivo thickness of the pre- and post-lens tear film and silicone hydrogel contact lenses measured by interferometry.." Vol. 78 (supplement), . (January 2001.): 51-.
  • Markakis GA, King-Smith PE, Roberts CJ, and Lembach RG.. "Precision of corneal thickness measurements from reflection specta: comparison with Orbscan, Optical Coherence Tomography and Ultrasound Pachymetry.." Vol. 42, . (January 2001.): S528-.
  • King-Smith PE, Fink BA, Fogt N, Kinney KA, and Hill RM.. "Further evidence that the thickness of the normal human tear film is about 3 micrometers.." . (January 2000.): -.
  • King-Smith PE, Fogt N, Fink BA, Kinney KA, and Hill RM. "A tear layer of thickness 1.6 to 7.3 micrometers determined by reflectance spectra.." . (January 1998.): -.
  • King-Smith PE, Fink BA, Fogt N, Kinney KA, and Hill RM. "The thickness of the tears, the corneal epithelium and Bowman's Layer derived from reflection spectra.." . (January 1998.): -.
  • King-Smith PE, Fink BA, Fogt N, Kinney KA, and Hill RM.. "Is the thickness of the tear film about 40 micrometers or about 3 micrometers?." . (January 1998.): -.